1782 – General George Washington creates the Purple Heart to honor “any singularly meritorious action” by soldiers.
1912 – Teddy Roosevelt is nominated for the presidency by the Bull Moose Party, which called for the direct election of U.S. senators.
1942 – The U.S. 1st Marine Division invades Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon Islands, in the first U.S. offensive of the war.
1959 — The first U.S. satellite to photograph the earth is launched.
1990 –Pres. George H.W. Bush orders the organization of Desert Shield in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.