1844 – Brigham Young is chosen to lead The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Nauvoo, Ill.
1863 – Robert E. Lee offers resignation as commander of the Confederate army after Gettysburg loss.
1945 – Soviets declare war on Japan; invade Manchuria in northeastern China.
1945 – President Truman signs United National Charter and U.S. becomes the first nation to join the international organization.
1974 — Pres. Richard Nixon resigns in the face of almost certain impeachment as Watergate scandal escalates.