1861 – The First Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas, Va. during the Civil War, resulting in a Confederate victory.
1925 – The Scopes “monkey trial” ended in Dayton, Tenn., with John T. Scopes convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution. (The conviction was later overturned.)
1949 – The U.S. Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
1961 – Capt. Virgin “Gus” Grissom became the second American to rocket into a sub-orbital pattern around the Earth, flying on the Liberty Bell 7.