1859 – Militant abolitionist John Brown is hanged after being charged with treason, murder and insurrection for attacking Harper’s Ferry in West Virginia and attempting to seize a federal arsenal of weapons.
1970 – The Environmental Protection Agency, a new federal agency, opens its doors. It was created in response to the realization that human activity can have major effects on the planet.
1972 – The Temptations earn their final #1 hit, “Papa Was a Rolling Stone.” Over several years of performances The Temptations placed 38 hit records in the pop top 40.
2001 – Energy trading company Enron Corp. files for bankruptcy, sparking one of the biggest corporate scandals in U.S. history. The collapse costs investors billions of dollars, wiped out 5,600 jobs and liquidated more than $2.1 billion in pension plans.